Author Topic: Invented Oysters - WRAL Investigates  (Read 1272 times)

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citizensscience

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Re: Invented Oysters - WRAL Investigates
« Reply #11 on: February 19, 2018, 08:40:21 AM »

USFWS - Chinese Oysters and disease in North Carolina waters... 

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Re: Invented Oysters - WRAL Investigates
« Reply #10 on: February 13, 2018, 09:14:43 PM »

United States Fish and Wildlife and...  Chinese Oysters


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Invented Oysters -
« Reply #9 on: February 13, 2018, 01:15:32 AM »
48 - Army Corps of Engineers - Adopts "Self-Report" SAV permit??



#InventedOysters
« Last Edit: February 13, 2018, 01:17:58 AM by citizensscience »
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citizensscience

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Re: Invented Oysters - WRAL Investigates
« Reply #8 on: February 13, 2018, 12:20:30 AM »

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Invented Oysters - WRAL Investigates
« Reply #7 on: February 12, 2018, 11:34:36 PM »

North Carolina declares "War" on Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV).
 

« Last Edit: February 13, 2018, 01:11:06 AM by citizensscience »
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Invented Oysters - WRAL Investigates
« Reply #6 on: February 12, 2018, 08:16:02 PM »
USFWS - Sets the record straight on "Escaped" Oysters...

Re: The Future of Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay

February 27, 2009

Regarding the Feb. 15 Metro article "Oyster Decision Could Alter Bay":

There is no doubt that if they are released, either in aquaculture settings or baywide, the nonnative Asian oysters will establish themselves in the Chesapeake Bay.

First, there have already been 10 documented incidents of nonnative oysters from the pilot studies and other research projects getting out of the confines of the projects.

Second, the Chesapeake Bay ad hoc technical committee reported that the "sterile" Asian oysters proposed for introduction will not remain sterile and will reproduce in the bay.

In addition, scientists from the Interior Department, the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Chesapeake Bay Program's scientific technical advisory committee and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science, as well as independent research scientists who reviewed the draft environmental impact statement, recommended native oysters as the alternative.

These entities also agree that native oyster restoration will succeed given the right implementation plans, enough time and careful management.

The health of the largest estuary in the United States is in our hands. Let's protect it.

LEOPOLDO MIRANDA
Director
Chesapeake Bay Field Office
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Annapolis
« Last Edit: February 12, 2018, 08:20:52 PM by citizensscience »
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Re: Invented Oysters - WRAL Investigates
« Reply #5 on: February 12, 2018, 08:14:54 PM »

Panda Bears and Oysters...

Critics of the plan to add Asian oysters, above, to the Chesapeake say they could do further harm to the native Eastern oysters.

By David A. Fahrenthold
Washington Post Staff Writer
Sunday, February 15, 2009
Sometime in the next few days, three men will make a decision that comes awfully close to playing God with the Chesapeake Bay.

The officials -- Cabinet secretaries from Virginia and Maryland and a colonel in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers -- will choose whether the estuary should get a new oyster. Seafood interests want to transplant an Asian species to supplement the decimated Eastern oyster, which can no longer fill its role in the bay's ecosystem and the region's deep-fat fryers.

A lot of people think the answer should be no.

Environmental groups, states and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency say it's not clear whether the new oyster would become a kind of kudzu on the half shell, crowding out the old one, or simply die and waste everyone's money.

For now, the officials seem split. One is leaning against the Asian oyster, one is neutral and a third supports it, at least if the oyster is confined to shellfish farms.

Their choice could alter the Chesapeake in a way few recent decisions have. Once an animal that can lay 10,000,000 eggs is set loose, it's loose.

"There's no real experience in an open aquatic system like Chesapeake Bay . . . of completely removing a non-native species," said Donald F. Boesch, president of the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science. "So it really is a point of no return."

A favorable ruling could pave the way for watermen and shellfish farmers to put millions of the Asian oysters in the Chesapeake. That makes it the most important decision in a long regional debate -- all arising from the odd-sounding idea that one of America's great shellfish grounds needs a Chinese transplant to save it.

"This is the moment we've been waiting for, you know, 10 years. . . . We will potentially be looking back on this for decades to come, either with fondness or regret," said Bill Goldsborough of the nonprofit Chesapeake Bay Foundation.

The Chesapeake's Eastern oysters, which once filtered its water and provided a living for generations of watermen, have dropped 99 percent below historic levels, because of overfishing and a pair of diseases.

But Goldsborough said he thinks the Asian oyster is too much of a risk.

"It's like saying, 'We're going to replace our black bear with a panda bear from China, and assume the forest ecosystem is going to be fine,' " he said.

The officials are expected to make their decision in the next two weeks, although the ruling will not be officially made public until April.

One idea that had frightened environmentalists -- putting the Asian oysters overboard and letting them spread unchecked -- now seems unlikely to be chosen.

"It's probably not as seriously discussed as it was before," said Col. Dionysios Anninos, commander of the Corps of Engineers' Norfolk District and one of the officials who will decide the oysters' fate. "The scientists [are] telling us there's a lot of uncertainty" about that plan, he said.

But there's still a major fight left.

Seafood dealers and watermen want to create a network of shellfish farms, where sterilized Asian oysters would be suspended in the water in mesh bags or cages. They say it would provide benefits -- a natural water filter and a valuable harvest -- without the worry of the oysters multiplying on their own.

"If you're serious in Chesapeake Bay about restoring an oyster industry . . . why aren't we looking at all the tools in the toolbox?" said A.J. Erskine, president of the Virginia Seafood Council.

The council has a pilot project raising 1 million Asian oysters at farms in Chesapeake tributaries, including the Potomac River. They sell out, Erskine said. Customers say the oyster has a slight metallic aftertaste when eaten on the half shell and tastes just like an Eastern oyster when cooked in a stew.

But environmental groups and some scientists have objected, saying that some of the supposedly sterile oysters will turn out not to be. They say the oysters will make sperm and eggs, which will be carried off by currents and brought together to make baby oysters, called spat.

The Asian oyster, without so much as a leg or a fin, will have effectively escaped.

"It will happen, and we don't know when," said Roger Mann, a professor at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science.

And once it happens, Mann said, the Asian oysters could wind up harming the native ones. In a bad accident of nature, the two species' sperm and eggs could essentially kill each other off.

"It doesn't appear as if it's going to coexist nicely," Mann said.

Now, a number of environmental groups and government agencies have lined up against approval for the Asian oyster. The EPA called it "environmentally unsatisfactory." New York, New Jersey and Delaware wrote a joint letter. The Natural Resources Defense Council said "what we need is not a new oyster" but more work to help the old one.

The Corps of Engineers was supposed to settle questions about the risks of the Asian oyster, with a 4 1/2-year, $15 million study.

But a draft report released in October found that "no specific level of risk" could be attached to the possibility that oyster farms might lead to an escape. Then, to compound the confusion, a curious resident spotted a large math error in one of the Corps' calculations: One key figure was off by a factor of 100,000.

"The research that's been done has been a little disappointing," said L. Preston Bryant Jr., the Virginia secretary of natural resources and another of the officials who will decide the oyster's fate. "After five years and $15 million or so, we still don't know if non-native [oyster] introduction would be successful, or if sterile non-native aquaculture would lead to a de facto introduction" of Asian oysters in the wild, Bryant said.

Despite that, Bryant said, he's leaning toward supporting Asian oysters in farms. He said he'd been persuaded by the success of Virginia's pilot program, which had never reported an oyster escape in seven years.

"Given that, why would we recommend backing away from that which has been successful?" Bryant said.

In Maryland, Natural Resources Secretary John R. Griffin is skeptical about the Asian oyster, a subordinate said this week.

That could make Anninos the deciding vote.

And he hasn't decided.

"My answer right now is I am neutral, and I'm not quite sure which way I'm going to lean," he said last week.

If the two states disagree, it is possible that they could issue separate rulings. But officials say that would only muddy the debate that their choice was supposed to clear up.

#inventedoyster #Chineseoysters #oysters
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citizensscience

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Invented Oysters - WRAL Investigates
« Reply #4 on: February 12, 2018, 07:39:43 PM »
Are they really invented??



http://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/pdfs/US5824841.pdf





Dr. Ximing Guo discusses his research at the Haskin Shellfish Research Laboratory on genetic methods to further aquaculture development and oyster farming.

https://youtu.be/ZW_Xwzjle78
« Last Edit: February 12, 2018, 08:00:16 PM by citizensscience »
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M. Beatty

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Re: Invented Oysters - WRAL Investigates
« Reply #3 on: February 12, 2018, 08:25:42 AM »
Who signed off to do this in DMF?  >:(

citizensscience

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Invented Oysters - WRAL Investigates
« Reply #2 on: February 11, 2018, 08:24:42 PM »
North Carolina's "Deadly" Chinese Oyster Experiment...

Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) ships 500,000 "Non-Native" and "Invasive" Chinese Oysters across state lines, into North Carolina with each being released into the North Carolina coastal estuary. 

Virginia officials were betting on a non-native oyster to help revive the Chesapeake Bay’s struggling shellfishing industry, a plan many hoped may present a road map to recovery for North Carolina’s equally distressed oyster fishery.

Back in 2008 the Virginia Marine Resources Commission unanimously endorsed a proposal to place as many as 1.3 million modified sterile Asian oysters in cages and bags dotted around the bay.

It was the biggest test yet to see if ariakensis - also known as the Chinese oyster - can help boost the bay’s oyster harvest, which is about 1 percent of what it was at the end of the 19th century thanks to overfishing, disease and declining water quality.

At the time trials had shown that the Asian oyster grows faster than the bay’s native eastern oysters and tastes somewhat similar to it. It also doesn’t die from the same diseases.

“We have been working all this time to come up with a complementary resource to our native oysters, and we believe we have found that,” said Frances Porter, executive director of the Virginia Seafood Council.

However, North Carolina officials, along with state regulators from Maryland and Delaware, are wary of introducing a non-native species into the marine ecosystem.

They see any introduction as fraught with risk, especially since so little is known about how the Asian oyster would interact in an alien environment.

But there's a catch... They did know of the risk as those 500,000 Chinese Oysters were released into Masonboro Sound, killing not only the genetically modified  Chinese Oysters, but surrounding wild native stocks.

As if 1/2 million invasive oysters were not enough, this same test occurred in Bogue Sound, with the same result.

How did this occur?

Citizens Science has uncovered documents suggesting North Carolina acted as the "Test Mule" for the Virginia General Assembly via VIMS and its Invented Oyster Lab throughout the early 2000's.

North Carolina...  Virginia's "Test Mule"...



Officials also feared that it would only be a matter of time until any Asian oysters released in Virginia’s waters find their way into North Carolina. 

Rather than Virginia testing VIMS Genetically Modified Oyster "Invention" in their own waters, they devised a plan and shipped them out of state to North Carolina, allowing VIMS experiment in North Carolina 3 years to reach success or failure and then report back just as the Virginia General Assembly had intended.

A few years later, citing concerns about these Chinese oysters becoming established in the wild, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration opposed the trial program. They also argued that Virginia officials should wait until a delayed federal study looking into the Asian oyster’s potential impact on the environment comes out, possibly as early as this summer.

The N.C. Marine Fisheries Commission had also adopted a wait-and-see attitude, back in 2008 until the environmental studies release, although that hasn’t stopped some of the commission’s advisory committees from calling for a ban on any "future" testing or introduction of Asian oysters in state waters.

But Porter said the trial program, run through the Virginia Institute of Marine Science, has stringent measures in place to make sure only sterile oysters are put into the bay.

What Porter forgot to convey is 5-10 % of these genetically modified oysters are in fact NOT Sterilized and in-turn cross breed with native oysters, causing a greater issue... Hybrid Oysters...

“We don’t want an accident,” she said. “We have been exceedingly conscientious with this project.

“What we believe, in fact, is that we are helping the bay.”

That’s because oysters, whether native or non-native, are filter-feeders, removing contaminants from as much as 50 gallons of water a day.

But for Martin Posey, whom at the time was chairman of the marine biology department at the University of North Carolina Wilmington, an overly cautious approach when it comes to the Asian oyster is a smart approach.

“There’s such a long history of non-natives performing differently in new environments, and we just don’t know a lot about this oyster right now,” he said.

But we did know a lot... Virginia shipped 500,000 oyster seeds to North Carolina in 2005, and subsequently introduced in the estuary waters right behind UNCW's Masonboro Sound facility.

Small (<50 mm) triploid C. ariakensis were deployed to upwellers on Bogue Sound in late spring (May), summer (July), early fall (September), late fall (November), and early winter (December) 2005; and two field sites on Masonboro Sound in September 2005.

Posey at the time stated that the Asian oyster also doesn’t produce the angular, clustered reefs like the native eastern oysters. Those reefs serve as vital habitat for a host of other marine critters.

In 2008 it was reported that limited testing (500,000), of the Asian oyster in North Carolina waters several years ago also found it to be susceptible to a disease, bonamia, that researchers didn’t even know was present in the state’s coastal waters.



Bonamia sp. prevalences were 75% in Bogue Sound, and 60% in Masonboro. While oyster mortality reached 100% in late spring and summer deployments.

Bonamia happens to be the exact disease that is widely blamed for destroying much of Asias wild oyster stocks, putting many oystermen out of business.

Now, with Bonamia present in Masonboro and Bogue Sounds the origin was passed off as likely originating from ballast tanks of ships up river in downtown  Wilmington... 

Then there’s the ethical quandary of intentionally introducing something that shouldn’t be here.

“We need to have truly, truly decided that we can’t bring back our native species before we start bringing in a non-native species,” Posey said in 2008.

North Carolina did not appear ready to do that.

In the same era, the N.C. Aquariums were proposing a large-scale oyster hatchery initiative to help rebuild the state’s depleted oyster stocks.

It appears, this 2008 proposal came full circle given the North Carolina General Assembly's $300,000 public / private oyster museum the found its way into the 2017 budget. 

“We’re not interested in that right now,” said Mike Remige, the hatchery program’s planning coordinator. “The goal is to restore North Carolina’s native oyster population.” - 2008

In the same report, Jim Swartzenberg, a Sneads Ferry fisherman who raises oysters in Stump Sound, said he’s also not interested in planting the Asian oyster on his leaseholds, even if it grows a bit faster than his current eastern oysters.

“It’s a non-native species, and we’ve never had good luck with them,” he said, ticking off kudzu as another alien species that was initially welcomed with open arms.

“The other reason is we’ve already got a perfectly good oyster.”

But the real litmus test on the Asian oyster came from Milt, his Chesapeake Bay retriever who loved oysters.

“He sniffed them and walked away,” Swartzenberg said. “I couldn’t believe it.

“My own dog wouldn’t eat them.”

#oyster #Inventedoyster #gmooyster #selects #oystersingles
« Last Edit: February 11, 2018, 11:31:49 PM by citizensscience »
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Invented Oysters - WRAL Investigates
« Reply #1 on: February 10, 2018, 09:48:01 PM »
Invented Oysters - WRAL Investigates Monday @ 6:00

Click here for video - https://vimeo.com/255219413




https://vimeo.com/citizensscience/inventedoyster
« Last Edit: February 10, 2018, 10:36:47 PM by citizensscience »
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